What are the complications in a pregnant women who is affected by dengue?

Dengue fever, a tropical disease predominantly transmitted through mosquito bites, can present a range of symptoms from high fever and headaches to muscle pains and skin rashes. Alarmingly, approximately 80% of individuals infected with the dengue virus do not show immediate symptoms, which makes it a silent yet potent threat, particularly in over 100 endemic regions worldwide.

1. Transmission of Dengue

The dengue virus is primarily spread through the bite of an infected mosquito. In some cases, the virus can be transmitted from a pregnant mother to her fetus, leading to complications such as fetal death, low birth weight, and preterm birth. Understanding how dengue spreads is critical in preventing transmission and safeguarding vulnerable groups, including pregnant women.

2. Protecting Pregnancy from Dengue

To protect your pregnancy from potential dengue infection, it is advisable to avoid traveling to high-risk areas known for dengue transmission. If travel is necessary, here are some steps to take:

  1. Research the prevalence of dengue in your travel destination.
  2. Consult with your healthcare provider before your trip.
  3. Take measures to protect yourself from mosquito bites.
  4. Exercise caution if residing or traveling in a region known for dengue.

3. Symptoms of Dengue During Pregnancy

Dengue fever can manifest mild to severe symptoms during pregnancy, including:

  1. High fever
  2. Nausea and vomiting
  3. A characteristic rash, often accompanied by itching and swelling, particularly on the palms and soles.
  4. Eye, muscle, and joint pains.
  5. Swollen glands
  6. Headaches

4. Recognizing Severe Symptoms of Dengue

While mild symptoms typically subside within a week, severe manifestations, known as dengue hemorrhagic fever, require immediate medical intervention to prevent critical conditions such as shock, internal bleeding, and even death. The severe symptoms include:

  1. Intense abdominal pain and tenderness
  2. Vomiting multiple times within a short period
  3. Bleeding from the gums or nose
  4. Difficulty in breathing
  5. Presence of blood in vomit, urine, or feces
  6. Marked fatigue, restlessness, and irritability

In the event of noticing any severe symptoms, seek medical help without delay to prevent adverse outcomes.

5. Navigating Dengue Treatment during Pregnancy

Dengue fever, especially during pregnancy, demands careful attention and precise management to prevent adverse complications. It is vital to note that there are no specific medications to treat mild cases of dengue fever during pregnancy. Below we outline the steps and precautions necessary for treatment:

Handling Mild Cases

  • Avoid Certain Medications: Steer clear of pain-relieving medications such as aspirin or ibuprofen, as these can escalate the risk of bleeding complications.
  • Stay Hydrated: Emphasize on maintaining hydration levels by consuming ample fluids throughout the day.

Managing Severe Cases

In the event that the fever escalates, hospitalization may be necessary to closely monitor the patient’s vital signs and administer necessary treatment interventions, which include:

  • Hospitalization: In cases of high fever, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor vital signs such as blood pressure closely.
  • Fluid Management: Patients are often administered intravenous fluids to manage anemia and maintain electrolyte balance.
  • Platelet Transfusions: Pregnant women displaying low platelet counts might receive a tocolytic agent to prevent contractions until platelet levels stabilize for safe childbirth.

Seeking Medical Attention

If you suspect that you are exhibiting symptoms of dengue, especially in severe cases, it is imperative to contact a healthcare provider without delay. Early detection and swift intervention significantly mitigate the risk of further complications.

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